《机床与液压》 Hydromechatronics Engineering

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分类:作者园地 发布时间:2012-06-06 15:41 访问量:4309

Design and motion simulation of the driving mechanism of the mechanical grate system based on ADAMS
题名实词首字母大写
Xin-cai ZHU1*, Wei FENG 1, Shun-dong LIN 2, You-qing DING 2, Ming XU2, Peng LI 1
1.Chongqing University of Technology ,Banan Borough 400054,Chongqing ,China
2.Chongqing University of Science & Technology ,Shapingba Borough 401331,Chongqing ,China
作者名:中文名姓全部大写,名首字母大写;外文名名前姓后,首字母大写。不同单位用“123…”上标标出,上标“*”标出通讯作者。
 
Abstract: The grate driving mechanism has been designed to drive the mechanical grate to reciprocate, to make the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) to be turned over longitudinal, up and down and to be mixed on the grate bed. Meanwhile, it discharges the ash longitudinally at the end of grate bed. This paper takes aim to design a reciprocating mechanical grate system for waste incinerator, which will meet the need of actual application. Based on the platform of mechanical systems automatic dynamic simulation software ADAMS, the rocker-slider mechanism and the structure of the program have been designed and the multi-body dynamics model has been established. The dynamicsimulationofthedriving mechanism has been done by setting up the approximateboundary conditionsbased onthe actual working conditions. The law of motion, the force, the displacement, the velocity and the acceleration curves ofthe rocker andsliderhas been obtained. The smoothness of motion and design rationality of the system have been verified and analyzed. It provides the reference for the optimization of mechanism and the design of motion control.
Key words: Mechanical grate system, Driving mechanism, ADAMS, Motion simulation (关键词首字母大写)
Mechanical grate system is the core component of waste incinerator, which is responsible for the transportation of refuse inside the furnace,and at the same time, it improves the waste and air mixing and disturbance degrees, so as to improve the combustion efficiency. In transporting and stirring waste process of mechanical grate system, the driving mechanism in mechanical grate system provides reciprocating motion to the movable grate in the grate system.The driving mechanism is an important part of the mechanical grate system.In the process of operation, the hydraulic oil cylinder provides reciprocating driving force, and then through the rocker-slider mechanism of transmission, the force makes the movable grate in the grate system realize reciprocating motion. 
In the actual conditions,the force in the driving mechanism includes the hydraulic cylinder pressure, the inertia force of the movable mass, and the friction and the load resistance. The Mechanism frictional resistance is small and the variation is difficult to define, so it is not generally considered in the stress analysis when the load resistance and the liquid pressure of the hydraulic cylinder are in equilibrium. Using ADAMS dynamic analysis of the driving mechanism, all forces acting on it can be simplified to the load resistance and the reciprocating inertia force [1]. 参考文献按文章中标注的顺序依次在文后列出,文中一般在引用处用标注,不用上标
    In this paper, we apply the grate system of reciprocating mechanical grate incinerator to the experimental base as the research object of designing a rocker-slider mechanism to meet the requirements of the movable grate reciprocating motion. And then we use the dynamic simulation software of mechanical systems called ADAMS as a platform to do a computer simulation research about the kinetic analysis for the rocker-slider mechanism in order to study the law of motion and the force during exercise of the key positions on the bodies more clearly in the course of their work. From the results of this study, we provide a reference for the optimization of mechanism.
1. Design with the rocker-slider mechanism各级标题首字母大写,各级标题用“1”“1.1”“1.1.1”表示
 
 Figure 1. Principle diagram of rocker-slider mechanism design
图表应清晰,必须有图名,全篇文章统一编序,即:“Figure 1,Figure 2”全文图表均不使用缩写,如Table 1
 
   Figure 1 indicates a number of the corresponding position of the rocker-slider mechanism according to the design principles of the rocker-slider mechanism. Our design task is to determine the length of the components "a", the offset "e", the starting position of the slider "s0" and the start angle of the rocker "j0".
The choice of the coordinate system “oxy” is shown in Figure 1. In accordance with the principle of connecting rod length setting, the following relationship could be established:
                      (1)
公式用公式编辑器编辑,全文统一编序。
 Coordinate values of point B: 
Coordinate values of point C:  
     Substituting Coordinate values into the equation (1), we can get the relationship between the required parameters and the given motion parameters. In order to determine the five parameters (i.e., a, b, e,j0and s0), five group values(jisi ) of corresponding location have to be given. For simplicity, the values of j0= 0, s0= 0 is usually selected. Because there are only three unknown parameters, the simplified equation is[2]:
         (2)
In accordance with the design requirements, we get the three groups corresponding position of the rocker and slider: j1=80º, s1=150mm; j2=90º, s2=75mm; j3=100º, s3=0mm.Substitute these data into equation (2) and solve it, the following data could be obtained.
     a=399mmb=76.2mme= -396mm
文章中英文变量用斜体,非变量(如人名、仪器名、材料名、单位)等用正体。
 
According to the actual grate system requirements, there is a 16° angle between the slider rails and the horizontal plane. Therefore, our design sizes have been adjusted accordingly, and as result, a = 412, b = 100, e = -388.
2. Movement and force analysis of the driving mechanism
2.1 Movement and stress diagram of the driving mechanism
In the reciprocating mechanical grate incinerator system,the movable grate and the fixed grate unit are in an interval arrangement. The fixed grates have been fixedinthesystemframe, while the movable grate can do reciprocating linear motion through a fixed rail in order to push the waste move forward and backward. The driving mechanism of the mechanical grate system is an important part of the power end for the active grate group, and its role is to pass the reciprocating driving force provided by hydraulic cylinders or other mechanical approach, to make the movable grate do reciprocating linear motion.
The Movement diagram ofthedriving mechanism in reciprocating mechanical grate incinerator grate system on the experimental base is shown in Figure 2.
 
 
Figure 2.  Movement and stress diagram ofthedriving mechanism
图表应清楚,坐标图应标注变量名、单位和坐标刻度,线条应明确
 
In this figure, No. 1 component is a rocker “AB”, No.2 component is the driving shaft handle “AC”, No.3 component is a connecting rod “CD”, No.4 component is a drawbar. Rocker “AB” and the driving shaft handle “AC” have the same angular velocity “ω” around the driving shaft to swing back and forth, and the length of the rods are r1 and r2. Figure 2 shows the limit position swung repeatedly, and the rotation angle is “α”. Rocker “AB” through point “B” to connect the driving cylinder, which is the original motive part of the mechanism. In practical work, the reciprocating driving force from hydraulic cylinder has been applied to the rocker “AB” through the point B, and the rocker “AB” drive the driving shaft and the shaft handle “AC” which have the constant angular velocity around the driving shaft. Connecting rod “CD” which has length “I” do planar motion. The drawbar 4 is equivalent to the slider, which can do the reciprocating linear motion along the fixed rail, stroke “L”, the angle between the fixed rails and the horizontal is “β”. The drawbar connected movable grate make the movable grate do uniform reciprocating linear motion.
2.2 Mechanical analysis of the driving mechanism
    In actual operation conditions, the forces in the driving mechanism are hydraulic cylinder fluid pressure force , the liquid in the sports quality inertia force of friction resistance, mechanism itself and load resistance. For the stress analysis, we do not consider the frictional resistance of the mechanism itself. And, according to the actual requirements, the move of the grate is only reciprocating linear motion. Actually, the resistance load and the hydraulic pressure is equilibrium.
    As shown in Figure 2, load resistance on the drawbar is mainly composed of two parts: first, waste on the grate ,movable grate and driving mechanism gravity of drawbar “G”; Second, resistance force from grate head when the movable grate push waste “”.
1Gravity “G” can be decomposed as the force “” along the drawbar movement, its direction is perpendicular to the drawbar movement and pressure force “”.During the moving process of drawbar, the frictional resistance “” between the drawbar and sliding guide, has been generated by positive pressure “” :                 .
According to design requirements, one drawbarhas been connected to the three groups of movable grate, and each group has ten horizontal movable grates. So:
   
     ;
     ;
      μ dynamic = 0.13, μ static = 0.15.
   G drawbar: can be obtained directly by the design dimensions of the drawbar in the ADAMS in the modeling. 
   G grate: G= ρ v g, and grate density “ρ” is 7.8 × 10-6kg/mm3; grate volume “v” is 7 × 105mm3.
   G waste: G = ρ v g, and waste density “ρ” take 0.6 × 10-6kg/mm3; waste volume “v” is 1 × 108mm3.
Put all these data into the above equations to evaluate  and , we can obtain as follows:  = 2500N,  =700N.
2In the movement of grate pushing waste, grate head squeezes waste, so it will get resistance force of waste . During actual operations,  varies with time. When the drawbar drives the movable grate forward, the movable grate head squeezes waste, with the travel of grate increases, the waste deformation increases, then  will increase; when drawbar drive the movable grate to move inversely, restoring force of beginning as deformation of waste, the  is very small ,and even with active grate driving force, then gradually no effection. When the travel of grate reaches a constant value, the back of grate head squeezes the waste, and it will have a certain resistance.
Therefore,  is very complicated to compute and difficult to grasp the regular. As the result, in this simulation, during the drawbar drives the movable grate to move forward, waste has been squzzed to 1/3 of its original volume. The movable grate head has suffered force from the waste, take an averaged value for the force,  is equal to 1300N.
…….
5 Conclusions
Mechanism’s Kinematic parameters analysis is a fundamental work for the evaluation of mechanism performance and optimizing the new mechanism [5]. The rationality of driving mechanism parameters have directly affected the performance of the entire reciprocating mechanical grateMG) system. Therefore, in this paper, after completing the design of the mechanism, the simulation model of the driving mechanism has been established based on the simulation software ADAMS. In order to verify the rationality of the design, the simulation about movement has been conducted. It provides the basis for further optimization of the design. As results, in the reciprocating movement, the driving mechanism has big impact due to the inertia force. We should adjust the size of each component, regulate hydraulic cylinder speed, and adjust reversing time to reduce the impact. Therefore, it is significant to use ADAMS dynamic simulation calculations for the design and optimization of reciprocating driving mechanism ofincineratorgratesystem.
 
 
 
参考文献的著录要求:若是专著,须按主要责任者、文献题名、出版地、出版者、出版年,页码的顺序排列;若是期刊,须按著者、文献题名、期刊名称、出版年、卷、期、起止页码的顺序排列。
 
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[1] ChenLiPing, ZhangYunQing, Ren Wei Qun, etc.Mechanical system dynamics analysis and ADAMS application tutorial[M]. Beijing: tsinghua university press, 2005.
[2] SunHeng, ChenZuoMo, GeWenJie, etc. Mechanical principle [M]. Beijing: higher education press, 2008.
[3] ZhengKai, hu RenXi, Chen LuMin. ADAMS2005 mechanical design advanced application examples [M]. Beijing: mechanical industry press, 2006.
[4] LiZengGang. ADAMS introductory explanation and the example [M].Beijing: national defense industry press, 2006.
[5] XieHuiPing, JiYingYu. Based on ADAMS software six-freedom stamping optimization design of mechanism [J]. Light industry machinery, 2009, 27 (2) :47-50参考文献后为中文题名、作者名、单位、摘要、关键词,中图分类号,格式如下
 
基于ADAMS的机械炉排系统驱动机构设计及运动仿真
朱新才1*,冯威1,林顺洪2,丁又青2,徐明2,李鹏1
1.重庆理工大学,重庆400054
2.重庆科技学院,重庆401331
 
摘 要:炉排驱动机构带动机械炉排作往复运动,实现纵向和上下翻搅混合炉排床上的生活垃圾,同时纵向运送灰渣排出炉床。以设计符合生产实际的垃圾焚烧炉往复式机械炉排系统为目标,利用机械系统自动动力学仿真软件ADAMS平台,设计摇杆滑块机构和结构方案并建立多体动力学模型,加载近似实际工况边界条件,作驱动机构的动力学模拟仿真,得到运动过程中摇杆、滑块的运动规律和受力、位移、速度、加速度曲线,验证分析系统的运动平稳性和设计合理性,为驱动机构的结构优化设计和运动控制设计提供理论依据。
关键词:机械炉排系统; 驱动机构; ADAMS ;运动仿真
中图分类号:TH12
 
最后是通讯作者简介(包括姓名、职称、电子信箱、联系电话等),基金项目(级别、编号),最后是通讯作者详细邮寄地址。
 
 
*Zhu Xin-cai,Professor, Tel13908359564E-mail:cqgzzxc@163.com.
Sponsored by National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project No. 51078375(国家自然科学基金(51078375))
    邮寄地址:重庆市巴南区红光东路69号 重庆理工大学 校长办公室,邮编400054